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THE PEOPLE'S COMPUTER COMPANY 
is a newspaper... 

about having fun with computers 
and learning how to use computers 

and how to buy a minicomputer for yourself or 
your school 

and books.. .and films... and tools of the future. 


help us write 

the next issue 
and the next issue 
and the next issue 
and 



Volume One, Number Oue; October, 1072 . 

Copyright 1972 by Dymax 



WE DID THIS ISSUE 

BOB ALBRECHT 
IVIARY JO ALBRECHT 
JERRY BROWN 
LE ROY FINKEL 

Contributors: 

Marc LeBrun (cover art, page 2 art) 
Jane Wood (page 4 art) 

Tom Albrecht (page 15 art) 



PEOPLE’S COMPUTER CENTER 
is a place. 

... a place to do the things the People’s Computer Company 
talks about. 

... a place to play with computers — at modest prices. 

... a place to learn how to use computers. 

We have a small, friendly computer ... an EduSystem 20 
(see Page 14), a timesharing terminal that connects us to 
the world and a Textronix programmable calculator, and 
some small simple calculators and books to help you learn 


does your school, group or organization have a computer? 
do you have a computer? 

do you like your computer? (do you like the computer manufacturer?) 
how do you build a cheap tape winder? 

do you have any good game playing programs or simulations (in BASIC)? 
what do you want? 

would you like to do one or more pages of photo-ready copy for a future 
issue? 

would you or your group like to edit and produce a complete issue? 






semous sron 

•"V 



PEOPLE’S COMPUTER CENTER 
1921 Menalto Avenue 
Menlo Park, California 94025 
(415)323-6117 


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OVER THE LITER- 


COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION 

“The magazine of the design, applications, and 
implications of information processittg systems. ” 

This periodical is the closest thing to being the 
Scientific American of the computer-oriented 
press. Apparently well researched articles, 
broad spectrum of topics: Technical (hard¬ 
ware and software), social, educational, pol¬ 
itical. It’s a magazine with a conscience. 
Computers and Automation is heavy on social 
comment and humanistic uses of computers. 
Every August issue focuses on Computer Art; 
every March issue on Computer in Education. 

Computers and Automation thrives on contro¬ 
versy - try these: “The Assassination of 
President John F. Kennedy: The Application 
of Computers to the Photographic Evidence. ” 
(May, 1970, a dynamite article); "The Vietnam 
Peace Game: Computer-Assisted Simulation 
of Complex Relations in International Rela¬ 
tions.” {fAarch, 1970); “A Computer Labora¬ 
tory for Elementary Schools. ’’(June 1972); 
“The Uses of Computers in a Political Cam¬ 
paign. ” (August, 1971). 

From; Berkeley Enterprises, Inc. 

815 Washington Street 
Newtonville. Mass. 02161 

One year (excluding the Computer Directory and 
Buyers Guide) 12 issues, U.S. only; $9.50. 

One year (including the Computer Directory and 
Buyers Guide) 13 issues, U.S. only; $18.50. 


COMPUTERS AND COMPUTATION 

This is the best book about computers . . . 
what they are, how they happened, how they 
work and how they are used. Computers and 
Computation consists of 26 articles from 
Scientific American, 1950 through 1971. 

The book is divided into five sections: 

/ Fundamentals 

II Games, Music and Artificial Intelligence 

III Mathematics of, by, and for Computers 

IV Computer Models of the Real World 

V Four Essays on the Uses of the Computer 

Articles include: “Computer Logic and Mem¬ 
ory”, “Computer Inputs and Outputs”, 
“Computer Displays”, “Time Sharing on 
computers”, “A Chess Playing Machine”, 
“Computer Music”, “Artificial Intelligence”, 
“Games, Logic and Computers”, “The Monte 
Carlo Method”. “Svstems Analysis nf TIrhan 
Transportation”, “Chromosome Analysis by 
Computer”, “Man Viewed as a Machine”, and 
“The Uses of Computer in Education.” 

Note: We believe books about computers are best introduced 
to students or budding computer freaks after they have had 
some hands-on contact with the Mddern Technological 
Marvel itself. 

From: WM. Freeman & Company 
660 Market Street 
San Francisco, Calif. 94104 

Published, 1971, 283 pages. 

$4.95 postpaid. 


2ii& page,jiist in case you were wondering. 


7 


COMPUTERWORLD 

“The newsweekly for the computer community” 


$9/year, published weekly. 
Circulation Department 
797 Washington Street 
Newton, Mass. 02160 


How do you keep up with computer science? 
Read Computerworld. New products, new 
applications, new companies, mergers, fail¬ 
ures. The Wall Street Journal of the comp¬ 
uter industry. Standard newspaper mosaic 
format and reporting, with columnists, edi¬ 
torial page, in depth serialized features, and 
articles of general interest. 


LOOKING 

ATURE.^ 





































































































































































The Huntington Project has developed and distributed the most comprehensive set of computer 
simulation programs written in BASIC that we have seen. NSF (National Science Foundation) 
funded this project from 1968 to 1970 at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. The project 
involved several high schools and dealt primarily with writing simulation programs for science, 
though some were written for math and social science as well. The programs are yours, in the 
form of a fat teachers manual which contains some 80 different programs under the headings of 
Biology, Earth Science, Chemistry, Math, Physics, Social Studies and Teacher Assistance. We 
have listed a few abstracts from the table of contents here. 

A nice feature of the programs is that they use a rather standard BASIC without string variables 
or files. This means you can run them on most systems ... provided you have memory space. 

Most of the programs take about 1500 to 2000 words. Each program includes a small amount 
of documentation outlining possible objectives, preliminary preparation, discussion topics and 
follow-up suggestions. A RUN of each program is also included so you can see what the program 
does. My only complaint is that some of the programs were run on a DEC TSS8 which had no 
RENumber command. Therefore, when you're typing in a program you have to pay close atten¬ 
tion to avoid line number errors, as the line numbers are eratic as hell. Sounds picky but you try 
it and you'll see what I mean. No school program is complete without these programs. They are 
a must. If you're having trouble involving your science department — they're the solution to your 
program. They are so good that DEC and HP have reprinted the programs and make them available 
to their school users. (Addresses listed on Pages 14 and 15.) 


■ 

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■ 

m 

m 

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♦ 

■ 

m 

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■ 

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■ 

■ 

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If 

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■ 


DROS — Game approach to determination of the 
genetic characteristics of Drosophila. EVOLU — 
Simulated experiment. The relationship between 
evolution and natural selection of accomplished by 
studying a population of mutant moths. PHOSYN 

— Simulated experiment Photosynthetic produc¬ 
tion of sugar varies as student varies light intensity 
or carbon dioxide concentration. CL I MAT — Prac¬ 
tice in identifying climates and climatic patterns. 
CLOUDS — Explores problems related to the for¬ 
mation of cumuliform clouds. ATWT — Calculates 
atomic weight from percent abundance of isotopes. 
DECAY 1 — qualitatively In a game type situation. 
BANK — Solves financial problems concerning In¬ 
stallment buying, long term loans and savings ac¬ 
counts. PLOTTR — Plots the graph of any function. 
SIMEON — Finds solutions to sets of up to ten simul¬ 
taneous equations. STOCK — Simulates the stock 
market. WATER 1 — A tutorial program which goes 
through the calculations of a water budget. WATER2 

— Prints out a complete water budget. 




H-UMTlMCTOri 


If 


B ★B ★B ★B ★B itm ★B ★B ★B ★B ★B ★B ★B '^B ^B 'A'B ★B ^B ^B #B ★B 'AtB ★B ^B ★B ^B ★B ★B ★B 'A^B ★B ^B ★B ^B -A^B ★B A'B ^B ★B ^B ^B #B '^B ★B ★B ★B A'B A'B ^B ★B A'B ^b ★b ^b ★b ★b ^b ^b ^b 'A^b ^b ^b #b #b ^b 

T B 

♦ 

B 


POLICY — A social science simulation that de- 


J HUNTINGTON TWO 

jf 


POLSYS — Political system simulation which is 


monstrates the inf luence of pressure groups at >f i.,, , -jri. . J brutal to figure out but is exciting once you do. 

the federal government level. The class is di- J Whatever gOOd Can be Said tor the Original HuntingtOn Project goes double j This simulation is designed to teach students 
vkJed into six pressure groups: business, military a for Huntington Two. Again, NSF haS funded a winner with the purpose of Jf political decisions can be influenced by 

nationalists. Internationalists, civil rights, labor, a j^ . .1 .. , • 11 ^ 5 community action at the local government level. 

Each team has 100 points which it can expend eve oping simulation packages in BASIC for use in schools. Over 200 ■ is a rather modem simulation in keeping with 

to try to influence 14 different economic pol- j SChools in the Country were testing these packages last year. They Ye great* a the times and the 18 year oW vote, 
icies. These 14 policies have their impact on 18 ^ ° 


economic indicators which the computer changes 
each round of the simulation. It sounds com¬ 
plicated, but really looks impressive. Students 
should have some economics backgrourKi in ad¬ 
vance of using this program. For sure, they will 
learn a lot from it. 


CHARGE — Simulation of Millikan's oil drop 
experiment for physics students. 


STERL 1 &STERL2-Yourgoalisto control 
a fly population of one million flies by using 
pesticides or releasing sterile males over a 75 day 
period. STERL 2 tells you how much your 
methods will cost you! The output is a graph 
showing how effective your procedures are. 
Usage requires detailed reading of the resource 
materials but is easy to use. The output takes 
a while to print out (suggest group activity). 


GENE 1 — Simulation of the inheritance of 
genetic traits using Mendel's Laws. User inputs 
a dominant and recessive trait plus the genotype 
of each offspring, and the computer will print 
the genotype and phenotype and details of any 
number of offspring. Easy to use with standard 
biology textbooks. 


Each program comes with the following kinds of documentation. 

Resource Handbook — This is really a mini computer textbook 
which tells the student all about the subject of the simulation. 
Simple; straight forward writing supplemented with illustrations 
and articles reprinted from periodicals. Also included is a detailed 
explanation of the model. The best two are 30pages each. (You 
can reproduce these for your students.) 

Teacher Support Material — In 7 or 8 pages the program is de¬ 
scribed, you are advised of preparatory activities and follow-up 
activities and shown how the program runs. 

Computer Laboratory Guides — Provides the student with a series 
of recommended learning actimties to try on the computer. 


B 

♦ 

B 

If 

B 

4^ 

B POLUT — A water pollution simulation. User 
B controls the type of water, water temperature, 
2 typeof waste (industrial or sewage), wastedump- 
^ ing rate, type of treatment. The output is a 
graph or table showing what your conditions 
created . This program is very effective 

B 

4- 

B 

4- 


LOCKEY — A simulation of the biochemical 
B investigation of the lock and key enzyme model. 

B 

B 
♦ 

B 

4- 

B 

4- 

■ MARKET - A simulation where two teams re- 
B present two companies in the competitive mar- 
£ ketplace. The teams make managerial type deo- 
^ isions regarding production level, advertising 
4 . budget and selling price. On the basis of these 
” decisions, the eomputer then tells the teams their 

■ profit, market share, cash status, and asset pos- 

■ ition. The teamsthen have the chance to change 
their earlier decisions and the game continues 

4 * quarter after quarter. We suspect this is a 
” simplified version of some of the fancy mana- 

■ erial simulations used in colleges and businesses^ 

B 

4- 

B 

Jf 

B 

♦ 

B 

B 

♦ 

B 

H SLITS — An "extended Lab" experience for 
jf students who are learning about Young's Double- 
2 Slit experiment. Like the others, this program 
comes complete with a mini-text and lab guide. 

fl 

♦ 

BA'B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B^B ^Bf^B 

B 

♦ 

: 0B • eOXYGEN-SCALEe ...5. • eOXYGEM* SCALE* * * 10* * *OXYGEM-SCALE* * * 15 

0* * VASTE*10* * SCfiLE. 20* * VASTE* 30* * SCALE* 40* * VASTE* 50* * SCALE* 60 


Now you’ve got the answer for the teacher whose excuse has been “I don’t 
have time to teach it” or “I don’t know how to use a computer” or “I 
don’t have the resources available” or “I have a headache” or whatever. 

The teacher is provided with everything. The resource handbooks are 
so complete they are usable as a self-instruction book. The Lab books 
give all the guidelines needed for computer experimentation. We’re using 
these simulations as optional units with teachers who have no computer 
background but are really excited about the materials. 

More programs are expected as the project continues. Their availability at 
this moment is questionable. They’re still testing these materials. When 
they are available, you must get them. We could go on and on and on with 
praise for Huntington Two materials, but we’ll stop and let you look at 
some runs. 


PoluA 


In this study you can specify the following 
characteristics: 

A. The kind of body of water; 

1. Large pond 

2. Large lake 

3. Slow-moving river 

4. Fast-moving river 

B. The water temperature in degrees fahrenheit: 

C. The kind of waste dumped into the water: 

1. Industrial 

2. Sewage 

D. The rate of dumping of waste. In parts per 
million (PPM)/day. 

E. The type of treatment of the waste: 

0. None 

1. Primary (sedimentation or passage through 
fine screens to remove gross solids). 

2. Secondary (sand filters or the activated 
sludge method to remove dissolved and 
colloidal organic matter). 


1 DAY 

♦ 

B 

B 

♦ 

B 

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B 

♦ 

B 

♦ 

B 

B 

♦ 

B 


I 


I 


0 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 
7 

r 1 8 


♦ 

B 

M 

m 

♦ 

B 

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B 

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B 

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B 

-k 

B 

♦ 

B 

♦ 

B 

♦ 

B 

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B 

♦ 


9 

10 
11 
12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 
19 



V 0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


11 




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auwO'W/«AL 


ACCESS AND 9 
UTILIZZZATION^ 



Ptemise: Education is real life experience. 
Experience processed through verbalization 
and created or reproducible images have their 
place in education, but only as auxiliaries to 
direct experience. Films just aren't as good 
as terminal availability and computer time 
for Computer Education. Movies can present 
information about things to which it is hard 
to have direct access for direct experience, 
such as exotic research and uses of computers 
or for summarizing computer development, 
theory and utilization. 

Truism: The computer field changes rapidly. 
So try to ascertain the production date of the 
Rims you want to use, or you’ll get hopelessly 
outdated stuff. This isn’t true across the 
board. For instance, Charles Fames’ film 
A COMMUNICATIONS PRIMER is still quite 
relevant and does not offend "modern”sensi¬ 
bilities even though it is almost 20 years old. 
There are few "educational” films to which 
this compliment can be paid. 

Tted Notes from an Old Hand at the Media 
Biz: Preview your films! Make their viewing 
optional; not everybody can comfortably or 
efficiently absorb information from the film 
media. 

If you can possibly arrange it, use a darkened 
room. Sharply defined visual information is 
easier to understand, despite McLuhan. If 
you are prone to visual media utilization, you 
may wish to scrounge or invest in some room 
darkening material. 


Have a lot of projectionists 
available (but one competent 
one at a time) responsible for 
projecting. Teachers are some¬ 
times the worst choice for pro¬ 
jectionists. Kids, 10 years and 
up, often dig manning the mac¬ 
hines, and do it well. To teach 
projector handling, demonst¬ 
rate threading, rewinding and 
trouble-shooting once, (loss of loop, loose 
plugs, burned out bulbs) then supervise the 
learner’s doing it him/herself a minimum of 
six times, even with auto-loads or automatic 
threading projectors. Remember that damaged 
film is expensive to replace and gets you in 
trouble with your film sources. 

Many projector speakers are a hoax, especially 
the built-in kind. People like Bell & Howell 
make it even worse by using esoteric external 
speaker jacks so that often you can’t use a 
good speaker near the screen even if you have 
one available. The bad reputation of optical 
sound track quality is at least as much because 
of speakers as from inherent limitations in 
optical tracks. If you are going to use media, 
use it effectively; don’t cripple it with poorly 
projected images because of too much light in 
the movie room, or with poor sound repro¬ 
duction. 



To project a large image at a short distance, 
you need a wide angle lens for your projector. 
National Camera Exchange, 9010 Olson Hwy., 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55427, has the follow¬ 
ing lenses for the Bell & Howell Auto-load 
(quoted 11/15/71). 


Temporary; Poster board, cardboard, 
heavy butcher paper. 


I” FI.9 $29.50 
l'/2” F 1.6 $33.50 


Art by Jane Wood 

SHORT REVIEWS 

of films we like to nse at 
compnter workshops for 
beginners. 

THE THINKING ??? MACHINE 

20 minutes, from Bell Telephone, color 

Presents in live action and animation an introductory 
overview of how computers work; discusses how 
computer ''intelligence" differs from human intelli¬ 
gence; shows the complete dependence of computers 
on programmers for operation. Best introductory 
film available for free that we've seen. Contact your 
local Ma Bell office. 

THE INCREDIBLE MACHINE 

14 minutes, from Bell Telephone, color 


Some exotic research, emphasizing computer graphics. 
Computer generated animation, teaching computers 
to talk, designing electronic circuits with CRT display¬ 
ed schematics, computer generated music sound track. 
THE COMPUTER REVOLUTION Parts I and II 
30 minutes each part^ color. From CBS News TV series 
'The 21st Century." Free from Modern talking Picture Service. 

Uses of computers In teaching, research, medicine 
and other applications; some discussion of social 
issues raised by computer use; the future of computers 
in society. (Q, 

THE CARMAKERS (Volkswagen of America) 

Free from Modern Talking Picture Service, 30 minutes, color 


A mindblowing film of the VW plant In Germany that 
uses huge automated machines to manufacture and 
assemble VW's, producing one every 8 minutes at the 
end of the line. Computers are also used in develop¬ 
ment and testing. Good film for disucssions of tech¬ 
nology vs ecology and men vs machines. 

g g Atlanta, Ga. 30308, 412 W. Peachtree St., N.W. 

•r ’Z Boston, Mass. 02167, 230 Boylston St., Chestnut Hill 
^ 2 Charlotte, NC 28202, 503 N. College Street 
cn .*9 Chicago, III. 60611,160 E. Grand Ave. 

2^ ^ Cincinnati, Ohio 46202,9 Garfield Place 
2 JS Dallas, Texas 75207, 1411 Slocum Street 
o g Detroit, Mich. 48235, 15921 E. 8 Mile Road 
Q- 'oi Houston, Texas 11027, 4084 Westheimer Road 
g’ Indianapolis, Ind. 46204,115 E. Michigan Street 
Kansas City, Mo. 64111,3718 Broadway 
15 o Los Angeles, Ca. 90038, 1145 N. McCadden Place 
I— 2 Minneapolis, Minn. 55420, 9129 Lyndale Ave. S. 
c New York, NY 10036,1212 Ave. Of the Americas 
^ £ Philadelphia, Penna. 19107,1234 Spruce Street 
O 5 Pittsburgh, Penna 15222, 910 Penn Avenue 
^ < San Francisco, Ca. 94105,16 Spear Street 

Washington, C.D. 20036, Suite 4, 2000 "L" St. N.W. 


More reusable: Heavy curtains, old 
blankets, opaque black vinyl plastic. 

If you usually use the sarrie room, then your 
room darkening system can be made to fit; 
otherwise flexible material that can be com¬ 
pactly folded for easy transportation (and 
storage) is destable. Don’t forget tacks or 
staples or tape. 



Set up your projector for maximum distance 
between projector and screen. Don’t limit 
yourself to tripod or wall pull-down screens 
if they are small. You can often project sign¬ 
ificantly larger images on a light colored wall 
or a white sheet in a darkened room. Beaded, 
highly reflective screens and small projected 
images are only of benefit if you can’t darken 
the projection area, or if you are hustling your 
media from place to place and super-fast setup 
time is necessary. 


External speaker jacks for recent model Bell & 
Howell projectors: from your projector ser¬ 
vice center, or get a Switchcraft (brand) S-280 
... try Brill, Radio Shack, or other electronic 
parts suppliers, or order from: 

Photo & Sound Company 

116 Natoma Street 

San Francisco, Calif. 94105 

Switchcraft S-280, $1.30 each (quoted 12/71) 
but, they request a $10 minimum order. 

You can wire the plug yourself, either with the 
appropriate jack on the other end to plug into 
your speaker, or with alligator clips to hook 
directly to the speaker connections on the 
back of the speaker itself. It’s simple, and you 
can do it even if you’ve never done it before! 


|PCC WOULD LOVE TO HEAR FROM^g 
|yOU regarding films YOU'VE^g 
iUSED. TELL US ABOUT THE BAD^p 
ioNES AS WELL AS THE GOOD ONES^ 
lAND THE SETTING IN WHICH YOU^ 
luSED THEM. WE WOULD REALLY^g 
APPRECIATE IT. THANKS. 



PREVIEWS OF C O M IN G A T T R A C TI O N S 
In the next issue we will critically review several mmputer 
film catalogs and tell you where to obtain these lists of films. 
These media lists are of interest to computer education 
people, as well as those interested in computer technology, 
graphics, research, applications, and computer animation. 


pjpilins 
r ilms: 

PLACES TO TRY 
Local College or University Film Libraries. 

School District Libraries. 

Computer-related industry. 

Bell Telephone — your local office. (In San Francisco, 
Ma Bell stopped free film distribution recently as an 
"economy measure.") 

Modern Talking Picture Service. (Branches in various 
geographic regions, free industry sponsored films.) 

Public Libraries in many areas. 

Remember when booking films, especially free films, 
place your order as far in advance as possible ... 
order for next year now. 


FIRESIGN THEA TER 

‘7 Think WeW All Bozos on This Bus^’ 

Columbia C30737 

'This stereo record album might be subtitled 
^''Adventures in Computerized Americadand, 
fwhich is a Disneyland-like place. Plenty of satiric 
^comment on science, technology, computers, poli¬ 
tics. Surrealistic audio theater at its best. It merits 
\several close listenings, and would be an excellent 
[addition to any resource center, not to mention 
your own record collection. This is the fourth al¬ 
bum by these extremely talented and perceptive 
spiritual heirs of Stan Freberg and Tom Lehrer.j 
Nothing is sacred to the Firesign Theater. Ifj 
your local record store doesn Y have it 
in stock, be persistent and have 
them order it, or order front. 


Columbia direct. 


jrb 




























j £38§i2Eg£C8glisslsll*.HISsll3SilSS 

Op, 12 can control a computep. 


IF YOU WANT TO TALK TO COMPUTERS, YOU GOT TO LEARN A LANGUAGE. THERE ARE LOTS OF LANGUAGES FOR TALKING TO 
COMPUTERS. MOST OF THEM ARE O.K. FOR COMPUTER FREAKS BUT LOUSY FOR PEOPLE. WE WILL USE THE COMPUTER LANGUAGE 
CALLED BASIC - GREAT FOR PEOPLE, NOT SO GOOD FOR COMPUTER FREAKS. 


Basic BASIC 


You can learn basic BASIC from this book ... but you can t learn how 
to use strings and files. Strings? See pages 10 and 11 of this Issue of 
PCC. Files? Maybe next issue. 


CHAPTER TITLES 

Introduction to BASIC 
Writing a Program 
Loops and L ists 
Computer Functions 
Elementary Data Processing 
Introduction to 
Specific Applications 
The Quadratic Equation 


The first 6 chapters (103 pages) 
cover all the elementary lan¬ 
guage elements of BASIC and 
are relatively non mathematical. 


INPUT and RESTORE 


Trigonometry 
Complex Numbers 
Polynomials 

MAT Instruction in BASIC 
Elementary Probability 


Chapters 7 — 13 can be read in 
any order and cover various 
applications of BASIC - mostly 
heavy math. 


Plus appendices - A) Storing Programs on Paper Tape B) Error 
Diagnosis C) Special Formatting Functions D) Summary of Flow 
chart Shapes E) Summary of Statements in BASIC F) Index of 
Programs in Text G) Answers to Even Numbered Problems. 





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Basic BASIC by James S. Coan 

from: Hayden Book Company, Inc. 

116 tVesf Fourteenth Street 
New York, NY 10011 

price: $5.95 
1970; 256 pages 





BASIC PROGRAMMING Kemeny and Kurtz 

On the first day, Kemeny and Kurtz invented BASIC. Then they 
wrote a book. We don't recommend this book for learning BASIC 
but we do recommend it as a reference guide ... applications re¬ 
source ... idea generator for people who already know a little 
BASIC. 

Here is a sampling of section titles: 


r- 


What is BASIC? What is Timesharing? String Variables 
Eternal Calendar Roots of Equations Curve Plotting 
Prime Numbers Random Numbers Dealing a Bridge 
Hand Knight's Tour Tictactoe - A heuristic Approach 
Tax Depreciation Critical Path Analysis String Files 
Linear Regression Electrical Networks Markov Chains 
Polynomials Marriage Rules in a Primitive Society A 



BASIC Programming (2nd Ed.) 
by John G. Kemeny 
and Thomas E. Kurtz 

from: John Wiley and Sons, Ir 

605 Third A venue 
New York, NY 10016 

price: $6.25 


Mode from E cojqq y.jlgrmonv in Music. 

Yes, they do 
tell about strings 
and files. 




1967, 1971; 150 pages 


MY COMPUTER LIKES ME* 
*when I speak in BASIC 


The second printing of our very 
own introduction to BASIC. 
Completely re-typeset, now 
with a bright orange heavy duty 
cover. In an easy going, con¬ 
versational style, this 64 page 
workbook introduces BASIC 
to young or old. Designed to 
be used with frequent access 
to a timeshare terminal (learn 
by doing!), we use this large 
format book in our introduc¬ 
tory workshops for people 
with no previous computer 
experience or knowledge of 
programming. The teaching 
examples are oriented around 
population problems and de¬ 
mographic data. See Page 6 
of PCC for excerpts from 
MY COMPUTER LIKES ME. 












































Gccune SCQRCCD in nnsie 


Strings? Numerical expressions? 


BOXES 


Deep down inside the computer there are 26 little boxes. 



PRINT "MY HUMAN UNDERSTANDS ME* 




This is a string.^It is enclosed in quotation marks. 

with ee without ff tt 

PRINT ”7 ♦ 5" 


PRINT 7+5 


A 

7 

H 

- 

0 


V 

B 

5 

I 


P 


W 

C 


J 

4 

Q 


X 

D 


K 


B 


Y 

E 


L 


S 

-6 

Z 

F 

2 

M 


T 



G 


N 


U 





e.s 


This is a string. It is enclosed 
in quotation marks. 


This is not a string. It is a 
numerical expression. 


Your turn again. Try these. 


SCR 

10 PRINT 
20 END 
RUN 

7 ♦ 5» 


'7 + 5s* 


^9 m ma 


If a PRINT statement contains 
more than one item, (string or 
expression), the items must be 
separated by commas or semi¬ 
colons. 

7^5 


Each box can contain one number at any one time. We have already stored numbers 
in some of the boxes. 


7 IS IN BOX A 
5 IS IN BOX B 



What number is in box F? _ In J? 

—6 is in box _ and 2.5 is in box 


.Note the comma. 




10 PRINT **7 ♦ 5=” J 7 ♦ 5 
20 END 
RUN 

7 ♦ 5= 12 

t 

semicolon spacing 


O.K., using a pencil, put 8 into C. In other words, write the numeral “8” in the box 
labelled “C.” Then do the following, carefully! 

FIRST - Put 12 into N. 

SECOND - Put 27 into N. But wait! A box can hold only 
one number at a time . . . before you can enter 
27 into N, you must first erase the 12 that you 
had previously entered. 

When the computer puts a number into a box, it automatically erases the previous 


content of the box. 


Note the semicolon. 


Tell it to the computer. 


(goolihttW 


10 LET A « 7 
eO PRINT A 
99 END 
RUN 


- PUT 7 INTO BOX A. 

- PRINT THE CONTENT OF BOX 


remember. 


to get a copy of the program in the computer’s 
memory, type LIST and press RETURN. 



A program is a set of statements. Each statement tells the computer to do some 
specific thing. So far, we have used only two types of statements, PRINT and 
END. 

A statement begins with a line number. The computer obeys statements in line 
number order. 

We space line numbers (10, 20, 30, etc.) so that we have room to insert new lines 
between existing line numbers. For example, we can insert up to nine new lines 
between Line 10 and Line 20. 

You may choose line numbers arbitrarily and capriciously except for two things. 
A line number must be a positive integer between 1 and 9999, inclusive and the 
END statement must have the highest line number of any line in the program. 

Type SCR to tell the computer to scratch (erase) the program in its memory. 
This is sort of like erasing a blackboard before you begin writing on it. 


Another example. 

10 LET A * 7 
20 LET B * 5 

30 PRINT A4>B# A-B« A>pB# A/B 

99 END 

RUN 

12 2 " 


More practice? O.K. 


35 


10 LET A 
20 LET B 
30 LET C 
40 LET D 


50 PRINT A^B4C*fO# A^B*C^D# A*(B^C># <A^B)/<C'«'0) 

99 END 

RUN 



14 


120 


14 


.555556 


We call A, B, C, ..., Z variables. The number in box A is the value of A, the numbe 
in box B is the value of B, the number in C is the value of C, and so on. Without using 
the computer, complete each of the following RUNS as you think the computer would^ 
do it. Then use the computer to find out if you are correct. 


10 LET A ■ 1 
20 LET A « 2 
30 PRINT A 
99 END 
RUN 


10 LET A e 7 
20 LEI B * A 
30 PRINT B 
99 END 
RUN 


10 LET A ■ 
20 PRINT A 
30 LET A = 
40 PRINT A 
99 END 
RUN 


Type RUN to tell the computer to obey the program in its memory. 

At the end of 1970, the population of the earth was about 3.6 BILLION people. 
iz 3.6 BILLION = 3,600,000,000 = 3.6E9 


The material on this page has been condensed 
reduced, cut, pasted and collaged from MY 
COMPUTER LIKES ME. Here is the table of 
contents from MCLM. 

TTY 

BEGIN 

STRINGS? NUMERICAL EXPRESSIONS? 

MISTRAKES 

SHORTHAND 

TOO MANY PEOPLE 

BOXES 

DIVISION OF LABOR 
FOLLOW THE SIGNS 
READ 8f DATA 
DEMOGRAPHY 

BEWARE MATHEMATICAL MODELS 
SORCERER'S APPRENTICE 
THE SORCERER RETURNS 
WORLD OF IF 
INT 

RACE TO OBLIVION 
YOUR TURN 
COUNT TO N 

DO I ALWAYS HAVE TO STEP BY 1? 

THE HANDY-DANDY FOR-NEXT LOOP 
SUBSCRIPTED VARIABLES 
BUILDING BLOCKS 
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL 

DOUBLE SUBSCRIPTS 
THINGS TO DO 
<l\l JANUS 

BOOKS WE LIKE 



If the present growth rate persists, the population will double every 35 years. 
Suppose this actually happens . . . what will the population be in the year 2250? 

j2 2§0 - 1970 = 280 = 8 doublings 
35 35 


We could do it like this. 

10 PRINT 3«6E9«2«2«2«'2*24>24>2«2 

99 END 

RUN 


(8 doublings ... count thcml) 


9*2I6000E^1I 


How many people? 

9.216E+11 = 921600000000 
A shorter way. 


too many 


921.6 BILLION 


1 


Do you remember? 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x 2 = 2^ 

In BASIC, we write 2^ like this: 2 + 8 

10 PRINT 3«6E9«2t8 Multiply 3.6E9 by 2®. 

99 END 
RUN 

9*216000E^11 <l-gstill too nnany peoplel 

Remember ... to compute a power use 



SORCERER'S APPRENTICE 


Do you know the story about the Sorcerer's Apprentice? While the Sorcerer was gone, 
the apprentice instructed the magic broom to fetch water from the well. The broom 
complied and began carrying water, more water, more water. . . the apprentice had 
forgotten how to tell the broom to stop. 

The following program makes the computer behave like the Sorcerer's broom. Once 
you set it in motion, it will start printing, printing, printing. . . . you. the apprentice, 
must know how to stop it! 

Before typing the program, find the BREA K key. It is on the righthand side of the 
keyboard. 


Now, enter the program. 

10 LET N « I 
20 PRINT N 
30 LET N * N^l 
40 G0 T0 20 
99 END 


RUN 


BEFORE TYPING RUN. READ THIS: > 


© 


To STOP the computer. 
Pre.ss BREAK for I second. 

If that doesn't work, pre.ss 
the S key. 

If that doesn't work, try 
ESC or ALT MODE. 

If that doesn 7 work, yell 
for help! 



and so on forever unless you stop the computer! 
















































A random number is a number chosen at random or 
selected by chance. Here is a sequence of random 
numbers. Each number is either 1 or 2. 

Random numbers: 2 2 112 111 

We got the random numbers by flipping a coin. If 
It came up HEADS we wrote “1If it came up 
TAILS we wrote “2." How many HEADS did we 
get? How many TAILS? 


Roll a die ... get 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6. We 
did it 10 times: 

3162513356 

Suppose we wanted a sequence of random numbers 
in which each number is 1 or 2 or 3 or 4. Easy ... 
roll the die. if it comes up 1,2, 3 or 4, write it 
down. But if it comes up 5 or 6, don't write it 
down. 

How can we use a die to get a sequence of random 
numbers in which each number is 0 or 1 or 2 or 3 
or 4 or 5? 


Random digits ... how can we get a sequence of 
random digits — 0 or 1 or 2 or 3 or ... or 9? Use 
superdice! A regular die is a cube with 6 faces, 
numbered 1 through 6. An icosahedron has 20 
faces. Two faces numbered 0, two faces num¬ 
bered 1, two faces numbered 2 and so on up to 
9. Here Is a sequence of random digits we got by 
rolling our Icosahedron 20 times. 

32297091951 63792 2 524 

How could you use a regular die (6 faces) and a 
coin to get random digits? 

We have a dodecahedron (12 faces) with faces 
numbered 1 through 12. How can we use it to 
get random digits? 

SPINNERS ... DICE ... SUPERDICZ 

From: CREATIVE PUBLICATIONS 

1101 San Antonio Road 
l\/tountain View, Calif. 94040 

SPINNERS 

Random digits? Use a spinner. Whole numbers from 
0 to 99? Use a spinner twice or use two spinners. 
How about a sequence of random numbers in which 
each number is 0 or .1 or .2 or ... or .9? And how 
do we get a sequence of random numbers in which 
each number is 0 or .01 or .02 or .03 or ... or .99? 



SUPERDICE 

The Icosahedron has 20 faces ... numbered 0 through 
9 (twice). Use It to generate random digits. 




In BASIC, we use the RND function to compute numbers that appear to be chosen at 
random. 

The statement: PRINT RNDC0) tells the computer to generate and print one 
'Yandom number.'' 


100 REMARK RANDOM NUMBERS 
105 RANDOM 

110 PRINT ••HOV MANY RANDOM NUMBERS”; 

120 INPUT N 

130 PRINT 

140 FOR K-1 TO N 

150 PRINT RND<0) 

160 NEXT K 
170 PRINT 
18 0 GO TO 110 
999 END 
RUN 


To RUN this program 
on an HP2000, delete 
Line 105. 


HOW MAMY RAMDOM NUMBERS?10 


.9933801 
.3014295 
.8681556 
.49 60684 
.1630098 
.5134436 
.6135728 
.06044509 
.840515 
.499084 

HOV MANY RANDOM NUMBERS?3 

.4298 691 
.08 7458 75 
.6559309 

HOV MANY RANDOM NUMBERS? Your turn. - 

Change Line 150 

150 PRINT 10*RND(0) 

and 

RUN 

HOli' MANY RANDOM NUMBERS? 12 

9.934811 
5.302479 
2.401577 
6. 68 7152 
8.508723 
.8 679659 
8.629288 
3.964037 
6. 120626 
1.047425 
1. 198915 
7.766666 

HOfc MANY RANDOM NUMBERS? 

Another ehai^ 

150 PRINT INT< 10*RND(0)> 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


THESE THINGS ARE TRUE: ♦ 

♦ 

♦ 10*RND(0) is greater than zero. X 

♦ 
♦ 
♦ 


1*RND(0) is less than ten. 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


etc. 


THESE THINGS ARE TRUE: 

Random numbers generated by the 
RND function are printed as decimal 
fractions grer ter than zero, less than one. 

• RND(O) is greater than zero. 

• RND(O) is less than one. 


RUN 

H0\i^ MANY RANDOM NUMBERS? 13 


3 
2 
9 
2 
6 
2 

7 

8 

5 
9 

6 

4 
0 


★ * 


; INT(10*RND(0)) i 

J is a random digit. J 

* ★ 


ha 



HOV MANY RANDOM NUMBERS? 

















os(l roj\<^n\ r\ujrKb<z.rs 
? V\<2.r<L \'S> Cifx^L <Zx.a.rr\ ... cx_ 

pcoc^ro.m ~b:> Ol- Tv^JL'n^^cxtT e)U/2i^s\T\<^ 

CfjL'rr^CL^ \\<LvnCx.r\ ms. CiO'nrv9u:L<2.r "’'HrvL 
Clc>m9u'^<Lr Cj<Lr\G.rcx.\.<z.s o. '^a.lf\dc>rr^ 
VjOV\o 1<L YWJUrntxZ-r ’0 (H::.»jO(2j2iY\ ^GofVc^^CiO. 
'pTvCL Vnu-taOltn 'kx-\.a^ (:^ix<2:s5 \Vvz. n'm\xK- 



100 REM ♦♦♦ NUMBER - A NUMBER GUESSING GAME 
110 RANDOM 

200 REM ♦♦♦ PRINT INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO PLAY 

210 PRINT "I WILL THINK OF A WHOLE NUMBER BETWEEN 1 AND 100.” 
220 PRINT “TRY TO GUESS MY NUMBER. AFTER EACH GUESS* I WILL” 
230 PRINT ”TELL YOU IF YOU HAVE GUESSED MY NUMBER OR IF YOUR” 
240 PRINT "GUESS IS TOO SMALL OR TOO BIG.” 


300 REM COMPUTER 'THINKS* OF A NUMBER - CALL IT X 

310 LET X»INTC100*RND<0)>+1 
320 PRINT 

330 PRINT ”OK» I HAVE A NUMBER 


START GUESSING.” 


400 REM *** HUMAN STARTS GUESSING 
410 PRINT 

420 PRINT "WHAT IS YOUR GUESS”! 

INPUT G 

IF G-X THEN 500 
IF G>X THEN 480 
460 PRINT "TOO SMALL. TRY A LARGER NUMBER.” 
470 60 TO 410 

PRINT "TOO BIG. TRY A SMALLER NUMBER." 
GO TO 410 


430 

440 

450 


480 

490 


, Si' 

^ V 






\CL 


kJL 


<p^ 


f- 


500 REM ♦♦♦ HUMAN HAS GUESSED THE COMPUTER'S NUMBER 
510 PRINT 

520 PRINT "YOU GOT IT! LET'S PLAY AGAIN. 

530 PRINT 
540 GO TO 300 




999 END 


RUN 


I WILL THINK OF A WHOLE NUMBER BETWEEN 1 AND 100. 
TRY TO GUESS MY NUMBER. AFTER EACH GUESS* I WILL 
TELL YOU IF YOU HAVE GUESSED MY NUMBER OR IF YOUR 
GUESS IS TOO SMALL OR TOO BIG. 


Q,^^. I HAVE A NIWBER. START GUESSING. 

WHAT IS YOUR GUESS? 10 

TOO SM4LL. TRY A LARGER NUMBER. 

WHAT IS YOUR GUESS? 20 

TOO SMALL. TRY A LARGER NUMBER. 


"X A.Vv5i 

S.xoLTv\\n(S:. "tltvJL ra&u'.\s> corvA 
Al^>Qo04.r '"'s) .'TM.r<z. 

CcKiL V><L.V\.<Lr . 

Ca.t>.V)Oul \n.\/<LT\\_ ^ 



WHAT IS YOUR GUESS? 30 

TOO SMALL. TRY A LARGER NIWBER. 

WHAT IS YOUR GUESS? 40 

TOO SM4LL. TRY A LARGER NUMBER. 

WHAT IS YOUR GUESS? 50 

TOO SMALL. TRY A LARGER NUMBER. 




WHAT IS YOUR GUESS? 60 

TOO SMALL. TRY A LARGER NUMBER. 

WHAT IS YOUR GUESS? 70 

TOO SM4LL. TRY A LARGER NUMBER. 

WHAT IS YOUR GUESS? 80 

TOO BIG. TRY A SMALLER NUMBER. 

WHAT IS YOUR GUESS? 71 

TOO SMALL. TRY A LARGER NUMBER. 

WHAT IS YOUR GUESS? 72 

TOO SMALL. TRY A LARGER NUMBER. 

WHAT IS YOUR GUESS? 73 

YOU GOT IT! LET'S PLAY AGAIN.” 


3K* I HAVE A NUMBER. START GUESSING. 

WHAT IS YOUR GUESS? Voar -Wm vw CjGL’TfV Otv / 


31 W ia XI. 0)U-a.ssas . 

Alccs opo<X , V V 31 £>V\OliA^X 
CdubOajS bz. Cyb)\<L "to cyX.(L S3 
AULmb<Lr vy\ oX YYvosb 7 C3UL(2.SS<ts. 
l-ooKs Wbz H Ok \\(hjd 













Hova DO£S iTv4oeiL? f^txjovi 


h 

I 

1- 

O- 

6 

S 

9 

>sy 


(P 

9 

<5;^ 

c: 

d 

u 

I 

0 

<:? 


if) 

(f) 

(p 

9 

d 

u 

O 

I 

o 




100 REM ♦♦♦ NUMBER - A NUMBER GUESSING GAME 
110 RANDOM 


♦ 


Y.(2ILp O.A;T'JlCl^\T\ 



200 REM ♦♦♦ PRINT INSTRUCTIONS ON HOV TO PLAY 

210 PRINT WILL THINK OF A WHOLE NUMBER BETWEEN 1 AMD 100*" 
220 PRINT "TRY TO GUESS MY NUMBER. AFTER EACH GUESS. I WILL” 
230 PRINT “TELL YOU IF YOU HAVE GUESSED MY NUMBER OR IF YOUR” 
240 PRINT ”GUESS IS TOO SMALL OR TOO BIG.” 


I 


mi 


300 REM ♦♦♦ COMPUTER 'THINKS* OF A NUMBER - CALL IT X 
310 LET X»INT( 100%RND<0))+1 
320 PRINT 

330 PRINT ”0K. I HAVE A NUMBER. START GUESSING.” 


♦ 



400 REM HUMAN STARTS GUESSING 

410 PRINT 

420 PRINT ”WHAT IS YOUR GUESS”; 
430 INPUT G 


\ 


Ccrrv(?aW C.lrv<ZjG.ts GU.a?.S C^c) 
0L9GL\r\«)t X\vxVY\b<2.r (.X). 



440 IF G«X THEN 500 


U\(L C)u.dSS I 


\ 


450 IF G>X THEN 430 


^oVVou> md vV qvLdss vs> UCT Gorv<2£l-L ! 

‘^\lc>u3 m(L 9UU2.SS 15 


\ 


x-^ 9 UJLSS uj>a*5 

7 ^ Y\c^ viCjKb ojtA 
^ YYS':. -b::iO bvC) j -Vrydrv 
'ocwxsb SYnCiuW 


460 

470 

PRINT 
GO TO 

"TOO 

410 

SMALL. TRY 

A LARGER NUMBER.” 


480 

PRINT 

"TOO 

BIG. TRY A 

SMALLER NUMBER.” 

490 

GO TO 

410 




O' 

S 


500 RB4 *** HUMAN HAS GUESSED THE COMPUTER'S NUMBER 
510 PRINT 

520 PRINT "YOU GOT IT! LET'S PLAY AGAIN.” 

530 PRINT 
540 GO TO 300 





MD 





999 END 


Your turn. Modified versions of the number guessing game are suggested below. Pick one ... write the program. 

MOD 1 Computer keeps track of the number of guesses and, when the human guesses the number, prints one of two possible messages. If the human guesses the 


number in at most seven guesses, the computer prints; 

CONGRATULATIONS! YOU HAVE GUESSED MY NUMBER. 
GOOD WORK ... YOU GOT IT IN ONLY 6 GUESSES. 














<L^ 


If the human requires more than 7 guesses, the computer prints a message such as; 

YOU HAVE GUESSED MY NUMBER. BUT YOU USED 9 GUESSES. 
BY USING A BETTER STRATEGY. YOU SHOULD ALWAYS GUESS 
THE NUMBER IN AT MOST 7 GUESSES. 











MOD 2. Invent your own! 


























STFIN98-A MlMCfllMER 


Strings? 10 PRINT ••MY HUMAN UNDERSTANDS ME^’ 

t This is a string. _t 

A string is an arbitrary string of characters. A Character is a letter or a digit or a space or 
a special character. Special characters are symbols such as + or * or # and so on. 

In PRINT statements, strings are enclosed in quotation marks. The quotation marks are 
not part of the string. They simply mark the beginning and the end of the string. 

The statement; 10 PRINT ••MY HUMAN UNDERSTANDS ME" 

tells the computer to print: MY HUMAN UNDERSTANDS ME 

The quotation marks are not printed. The string which is enclosed in quotation marks is 
printed. 

A PRINT statement may contain more than one string. The strings must be separated by 
commas or semicolons. 



//HHIS MINIPRIMER IS ABOUT STRING^ 

¥L FOR THE ^ 

^ HP 2000A HP 2000B 

HP2000C HP2000E U 

HP2000F 

See page 15. 


ba 




BEWARE! Even if your computer does understand 
string variables, their characteristics may differ from 
the string variables described here. If our programs yP 
don't work on your computer, ask someone to ex- y/ 
\\ plain how string variables work (if they do) on youN^ 
^i^mputer. 






STRING VARIABLES 


10 PRINT "SEMICOLON”;"SPACING" 

99 END 

RUN 


10 PRINT "COMMA’S "SPACING' 

99 END 

RUN 


Does your computer understand string variables? They 
look like this; 


semicolonspacing 


COMMA SPACING 


AS BS CS DS • • • ZS 


LENGTH OF A STRING 


The string variable is a letter followed by a dollar sign. 
The value of a string variable must be a string. Here is 
a program using the string variable C$. 


The length of a string is the number of characters, including spaces, in the string. 

37 PRINT "THE LENGTH OF THIS STRING IS 43 CHARACTERS." 

The length of the string in the above PRINT statement is 43 characters. Count them . . . 
include spaces and the period at the end, but don't include the quotation marks. They 
are not part of the string. 


10 DIM C$<30) 

20 LET C$="MY HUMAN UNDERSTANDS ME" 
30 PRINT CS 
99 END 
BUN 

MY HUMAN UNDERSTANDS ME 


Several strings are shown in the table below. Each string is enclosed in quotation marks 
and the length of each string is shown. 

STRING LENGTH 


The statement; 

10 DIM C$(30> 

tells the computer that the string variable C$ may have 
string values of up to 30 characters. 


"MY HUMAN UNDERSTANDS ME" 


23 


The statement: 


"ABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPORSTUVluXYZ" 


26 


20 LET Cf»^*MY HUMAN UNDERSTANDS ME" 


"7 + 5 ®" assigns the string MY HUMAN UNDERSTANDS ME as 

the value of C$. The length of this string is 23 charac- 
•*A" ters which does not exceed the maximum of 30 set by 

I Line 10. 

••ft * 

The statement: 

30 PRINT CS 

tells the computer to print the current value of C$. 


0 


"DOES YOUR COMPUTER UNDERSTAND YOU?" 34 



STRING INPUT 


Yes, you can INPUT a string. 


Let's RUN it again. 


10 REM PROGRAM TO DEMONSTRATE STRING INPUT 
20 DIM NSC 25) - N$ may have up to 25 characters. 

30 PRINT "VHAT IS YOUR NAME"; 

40 INPUT NS 

50 PRINT "YOU SAY YOUR NAME IS ";N$ 

99 END 
RUN 


RUN 


liHAT IS YOUR NAME?JOHN 
BAD INPUT> RETYPE FROM 
?? 


JACOB JINGLE HEIMERSCHMIDT 
ITEM 1 

IL 

An error message ... too 
many characters in the name. 


VHAT IS YOUR NAME?GANDALF 
YOU SAY YOUR NAME IS GANDALF 


0 


key,^ 

IS this line. ^ 

page 10 already. 


When we hit the 
the computer types this line. 


We do not put quotation marks around our 
typed response to the input question mark 
because there is only one string variable in 
the INPUT statement (Line 40). 

If there were two or more string input 
variables, the string corresponding to 
each string variable would have to be 
enclosed in quotation marks and separated 
by a comma. 


Double question mark means 
try again. 


(Well, go ahead. If you are at a computer terminal 
enter the program, or your variation of it, and try 
it out!) 




SUBSTRINGS 


120 LET A$="ABCDEFCHIJKLMNOPeRSTUVViXYZ" 

The value of A$ is a string of length 26. That is, the string has 26 characters. Number 
the characters in A$ from 1 to 26 beginning at the left end of the string. 

A substring is a portion of a string. For example; 

String; ” ABC DE FCHIJKL MMOPQR S T U VVX YZ ** 


Substring #1 

Substring #2 ' Substring #4 

Substring #3 




Here is a program to print the underlined substrings in the string above. 


10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

99 

RUN 


REM PROC 7 RAM TO PRINT SUBSTRINGS 
DIM A$(26) 

LET A$=”ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPORSTUVViXYZ" 
PRINT "THE STRING IS: ”;A$ 

"SUBSTRING #1 IS: 

"SUBSTRING #2 IS: 

"SUBSTRING #3 IS: 

"SUBSTRING #4 IS: 


PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

END 


"J AS( l» 3) 
A$( 7> 7) 
AS( 13, 17) 
A$C21,26) 


THE STRING IS: 
SUBSTRING #1 IS: 
SUBSTRING #2 IS: 
SUBSTRING #3 IS: 
SUBSTRING #4 IS: 


ABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPQRSTUVViXYZ 

ABC 

G 

MNOPQ 

UVWCYZ 



DONE 




letter guessing game 


100 RE!4 LETTER - A LETTER GUESSING GAME 

110 DIM A$<26) 

120 LET A$=”ABCDEIGHIJKLMNOPORSTUUVXYZ" 

200 REM *** PRINT INSTRUCTIONS ON HOV. TO PLAY 

210 PRINT "I VILL THINK OF A LETTER OF THE ALPHABET. A TO Z.” 
220 PRINT "TRY TO GUESS MY LETTER. AFTER EACH GUESS. I VILL” 
230 PRINT "TELL YOU IF YOU GUESSED MY LETTER OR IF YOUR GUESS” 
240 PRINT "IS TOO HIGH OR TOO LOW. THE LOVEST LETTER IS ’A’” 
250 PRINT "AND THE HIGHEST LETTER IS 'Z'." 

300 REM *** COMPUTER ’THINKS' OF A LETTER - CALL IT L$ 

310 LET X=INT( 26*RND( 0) )+1 
320 -LET LS = A$(X.X) 

330 PRINT 

340 PRINT "OK. I HAVE A LETTER. START GUESSING." 

400 RfsM HUMAN STARTS GUESSING 

410 PRINT 

420 PRINT "V.HAT IS YOUR GUESS"! 

430 INPUT GJ 

440 IF G3.=L? THEN 500 

450 IF GS>L$ THl-N 430 

460 PRINT "TOO LOV. TRY A HIGHER LETTER." 

470 GO TO 410 

43 0 PRINT "TOO HIGH. TRY A LOVER LETTER." 

49 0 GO TO 410 

500 REM t** HUMAN HAS GUESSED THE COMPUTER’S LETTER 
510 PRINT 

520 PRINT "YOU C’OT IT! LET’S PLAY AGAIN." 

530 PRINT 
540 C'O TO 300 

999 END 


runp 

I V.TLL THINK OF A LETTER OF THE ALPHABET. A TO Z. 
TRY TO GUESS MY LF'TTE:R. AFTER EACH GUESS. I VILL 
TELL YOU IF YOU GUESSED MY LETTER OR IF YOUR GUESS 
IS TOO HIGH OR TOO LOV. THE LOVEST LETTER IS ’A’ 
AND THE HlGHESl LETTER IS ’Z ’. 


OK. I HAVE A LETTER. START GUESSING. 


VHAT IS YOUR GUESS7D 

TOO LOV. TRY A HIGHER LETTER. 


VHAT IS YOUR C'UESS?K 
TOO LOV. TRY A HIGHER 

VHAT IS YOUR GUESS7M 
TOO LOV. TRY A HIGJ-IER 

VHAT IS YOUR GUESSTR 
TOO LOV. TRY A HIGHER 

VHAT IS YOUR GUESS7U 
TOO HIGH. TRY A LOVER 

VHAT IS YOUR GUESS7T 
TOO HIGH. TRY A LOVER 

VHAT IS YOUR C-UESS7S 



YOU GOT IT! LET’S PLAY AGAIN. 

OK. I HAVE A LETTER. START GUESSING. 
VHAT IS YOUR GUESS? 
























Beginning next issue, we will print listings of one or more Lawrence 
Hall of Science game playing programs (for HP 2000C) along with 
other news from the Hall. LHS is one of our favorite sources of 
computer games and one of our favorite games is BAGELS. 





STORE OPENING- 
‘DISCOVERY CORNER’’ 


FALL COMPUTER EDUCATION 
PROGRAM 


Science games, puzzles, and materials 
will now be sold at our new “Discovery 
Corner,” located near the reception desk 
on the entrance level. The primary object 
of the store is to make available to visi¬ 
tors and school groups items developed at 
the Lawrence Hall of Science, at a reason¬ 
able price. For those who find it difficult 
to come to the Hall, mail order forms will 
be available. For further information, 
please write to Discovery Corner, Law¬ 
rence Hall of Science. 


NEW DISCOVERY VAN PROGRAM 

A special, new van, equipped with 
math games, puzzles, and materials from 
the sciences, will carry new educational 
programs directly to surrounding school 
districts. Schools within a 100-mile ra¬ 
dius of Berkeley who, because of finances 
or distance, have not been able to visit 
the Hall will have the opportunity to 
work with our staff to set up programs to 
fit their needs. 

The development of the Discovery 
Van program is based on our experience 
with classes and in-service teacher work¬ 
shops held at the Lawrence Hall over the 
past five years. The van will supply tools 
and workshop materials for classroom 
discovery activities. Members of our pro¬ 
fessional staff, as well as UC grad students 
will assist teachers in developing and 
using the discovery approach for lab acti¬ 
vities. Mathematical and environmental 
sciences will be emphasized at the elem¬ 
entary level, and mathematics, environ¬ 
mental, physical, and computational skills 
at the junior and senior high levels. 

Visits will vary: some schools may pre¬ 
fer several one-day programs, while others 
may wish to pursue a long-range project. 
The schools will be asked to purchase 
instructional materials for classroom use 
as well as provide some release teacher 
time for workshops in the district. De¬ 
tailed information on the program can be 
obtained by calling 642-4193, or writing 
c/o Discovery Van program. 


SCHOOL VISIT PROGRAM 

This year an exciting program of spe¬ 
cial activities is scheduled for school 
groups visiting the Hall. Designed for 
4th—8th graders, it will be held on Tues¬ 
days, Wednesdays, and Thursdays, from 
10 am to 2 pm. Starting the day will be a 
lecture-demonstration on chemistry, in- j 
eluding suggestions for at-home experi- 
ments. Following the lecture will be 
workshops in biology, computer science, 
and physics. Activities are planned to 
stimulate further investigation in the stu¬ 
dents’ own classrooms. The Science Play¬ 
ground will be open for additional dem¬ 
onstrations, and students will be able to 
purchase games, puzzles, and experiments 
in the new “Discovery Corner.” 

Since the program can accommodate 
only 100 students per day, reservations 
will be necessary. The charge will be $1/ 
student, teachers and chaperones admit¬ 
ted free. For further information, call 
Christine Ledeux at 642-4193. 


bagels 


RUN 

BAGELS 

W0ULD Y0U LIKE THE RULES?YES 


I AM THINKING 0F A THREE DIGIT NUMBER. Y0U CAN GUESS WHAT 
NUMBER I HAVE IN MIND AND I WILL TELL Y0U: 


PICO - 0NE DIGIT IS IN THE WRONG PLACE 

FERMI - ONE DIGIT IS IN THE CORRECT PLACE 
BAGELS - N0 DIGIT IS CORRECT 


OKAY# I HAVE A NUMBER IN MIND. 

GUESS if I :500 

OH. I FORGOT TO TELL YOU THAT THE NUMBER I HAVE IN MIND 
HAS NO TWO DIGITS THE SAME. 


GUESS if 1 :567 
GUESS if 9. : 123 
GUESS ^3 t21A 
GUESS # A i939 
GUESS #5 :918 
GUESS if 6 *319 


BAGELS 
PICO PICO 
FERMI 

PICO FERMI 
PICO FERMI 


YOU GOT IT 


AGAIN7YES 


OKAY# 

I 

HAVE A NUMBER 

IN MIND. 

GUESS 

it 

1 : 123 

BAGELS 

GUESS 

U 

2 :456 

FERMI FERMI 

GUESS 

0 

3 :478 

PICO 

GUESS 

if 

4 *756 

FERMI FERMI 

GUESS 

if 

5 :856 



YOU GOT IT 


AGAIN7YES 


OKAY# 

I 

HAVE 

A NUMBER 

IN MIND. 

GUESS 

if 

1 

*789 

FERMI 

GUESS 

it 

2 

X 712 

PICO 

GUESS 

it 

3 

: 1 85 

BAGELS 

GUESS 

it 

4 

*209 

FERMI FERMI 

GUESS 

it 

5 

*239 

FERMI FERMI 

GUESS 

if 

6 

: 249 

FERMI l-EHMI 

GUESS 

it 

7 

*269 



YOU GOT IT 


AGAIN7N0 


A 3 
DONE 


- POINT BAGELS BUFF 



LAWRENCE 
HALL OF 
SCIENCE 


MEMBERSHIP 


LHS members receive the Kaleidoscope, in¬ 
formation on special programs, and free admis¬ 
sion to regular activities. Membership cate¬ 
gories include: Sustaining, $100; Sponsoring, 
$50; Family, $15; Double, $12; Adult, $8; Stu¬ 
dent, $4; Lifetime, $1,000. Contributions are 
tax-deductible. Join now! 


Lawrence Hall of Science 
University of California 
Berkeley, California, 94720 
General Information (415) 642-5132 


The LHS Computer Education Project 
is offering newly organized courses for its 
afternoon, evening and Saturday series 
for children and adults. Classes include 
game-playing, problem solving, program¬ 
ming, and an introduction to computers 
and their impact on society. 

Each 80-minute class will meet once a 
week for eight weeks, beginning the week 
of October 9, 1972. The program will 
also be offered in the spring. Enrollment 
fee for each course is $35 for LHS mem¬ 
bers. Non-members will also be required 
to purchase a $15 family membership 
with the following exceptions: 

(a) Single adults (18 and older) may 
purchase an adult membership for $8. 

(b) UC students with current registra¬ 
tion cards are automatically LHS mem¬ 
bers. 

Respondent interests and time prefer¬ 
ences will determine final class scheduling. 
For information, call 642-3134. 

Creative Play with the Computer (Course I) 

A get-acquainted course designed for 8—12 
year olds, although older children and adults 
will enjoy It. Participants will explore the com¬ 
puter as an artistic, creative and recreational 
medium: develop dialogues, stories and rhymes, 
draw pictures with a teletypewriter, and work 
with a computer-controlled musical tone box, 
robot, and electronic graphic plotter. Prepara¬ 
tory for computer programming, but does pot 
Include actual programming. 

Planful Thinking and Problem Solving 
(Course II) 

Ages 10—13 will learn skills for solving 
problems, ranging from mysteries and strategy 
games to math and science. Includes a program 
developed in the Psych. Dept, at UC Berkeley 
and a problem-oriented programming language 
developed at LHS. 

Computer Programming in NYLON and BASIC 
(Course III) 

Programming In NYLON and/or BASIC pro¬ 
gramming languages for writing computer-based 
instructional materials and dialogues, solving 
problems, or using the computer for creative 
play. One section for ages 13—18, another for 
college students and adults. 

Computer Sophistication (Course IV) 

Demonstrations, films, lectures, and hands- 
on activities will introduce uninitiated adults to 
the world of computers. Topics include, "What 
are computers?" and "How will they affect our 
future lifestyles?" 

Teletype terminals will continue to be 
available to the public at $.50/hr. (plus 
LHS entrance fee) on weekends and after¬ 
noons. 


WOODSHOP FACILITIES AVAILABLE 

This fall teachers are invited to make 
science and math materials in our Wood- 
shop. Our staff will be on hand to assist 
in various shop activities cardboard car¬ 
pentry, design work, use of power tools, 
and construction of kits. 

These Saturday Open Workshops for 
Teachers will be held one Saturday each 
month from 9:30 am -4:30 pm. The first 
workshop will be held on October 14, 
and thereafter on .the first Saturday of 
each month through February, 1973. A 
lab fee of $20 is required in advance. For 
more information or a reservation form, 
write to the Lawrence Hall, Workshops, 
or call 642-4193. 















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ONE MAN^S OPINION 

At a recent conference in San Francisco, I found my¬ 
self answering the same question from teachers all day 
long. So, I thought Vd commit my response to writing 
and if you’d care to respond, do so and it will appear 
in a later issue of PCC. 

The problem presented was: How can I get the money 
for hardware or how can I get more money to increase 
the system we have? The situation is the same and 
therefore my response is the same to each question. 
YOU HA VE TO GET THE ENTIRE SCHOOL IN¬ 
VOLVED IN YOUR COMPUTER EDUCATION 
PROGRAM! If you set up a program that is limited 
to math students or you set up all sorts of fancy pre¬ 
requisites so that only a limited number of students 
use your computer, then you cannot expect support 
or more money from anyone but the few people 
who use the system. Even if every math student in 
school uses the computer at some time during the 
year, only you and he know it and he can’t do you 
much good when it comes to promoting more money. 

You have to get out of the math problem-solving syn¬ 
drome (that’s what I call it) and try to get as many 
other people involved with your computer as possible. 
The science department is the first logical choice. The 
Huntington Project computer programs (see page 3) 
make it easy for any science teacher to get involved 
with a computer. These programs cover a wide range 
of science topics and are available, ready to run on 
most educational computer systems. The business 
department is the next logical user. I’m a business 
teacher and I’m not convinced that you’ll find much 
support there, but look anyway for the one person 
who is teaching data processing or is interested in 
teaching it. Social studies teachers have an inherent 
disdain for computers but you can probably find one 
who is into gaming or simulations who would enjoy 
having his students do a simple economic simulation 
or simply play a computer game. The resources are 
available from HP and DEC. All you need to do is 
get them and use them. 

Some schools have done some far out things like 
scouting football games for the athletic department 
using the computer. Some have done work in English 
on a very basic level. There are even things that can 
be done with home economics and art. One easy 
thing to do for anyone, is the tabulation of surveys 
or correcting tests, if you want to get into that. 

The important thing is you have to get others involved. 
You’ll break your fanny doing it, but if you want to 
get more than a one terminal minimum system you are 
going to have to substantiate your need. You can’t 
substantiate a need if only the math department is 
using the computer. 

Finis 


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